There were an estimated 1, deaths from AIDS in Italy's housing and public building program was a major item in the general program of postwar reconstruction. From June to June , however, of the 6,, rooms destroyed or severely damaged, , were rebuilt and 4,, were repaired. Under a special housing program, originally instituted with funds from UNRRA and subsequently financed by employer and employee contributions, a total of 15 million rooms were constructed between and , alleviating the nation's immediate housing problems.
In , , new dwellings were completed. Education is free and compulsory for eight years for students age 6 through 15 , this includes five years of elementary school and three years of lower secondary school. Next, students may choose to attend a technical school, a vocational school, or one of several academic secondary schools, which offer a choice of specialized programs in classical, scientific, linguistic, and artistic studies.
All secondary programs generally cover a five-year course of study. The student-to-teacher ratio for primary school was at about in There are 55 state universities and 23 other universities, colleges, and higher learning institutes, including the University of Bologna founded in the 11th century , the oldest in Italy, and the University of Rome, which is the country's largest.
The adult literacy rate for was estimated at about As of , public expenditure on education was estimated at 4. Italy, with its rich cultural heritage, is one of the world's great storehouses of books and art. Among its many of libraries, the most important are in the national library system, which contains two central libraries, in Florence 5. The existence of two national central libraries, while most nations have one, came about through the history of the country, as Rome was once part of the Papal States and Florence was the first capital of the unified Kingdom of Italy.
While both libraries are designated as copyright libraries, Florence now serves as the site designated for conservation and cataloging of Italian publications and the site in Rome catalogs foreign publications acquired by the state libraries. All of the national libraries are public. The Estense Library in Modena holds , volumes, including illuminated manuscripts from the 14th to 18th centuries.
The university libraries in Bologna 1. The Medici -Laurentian and Marucelliana , libraries in Florence and the Ambrosiana Library in Milan are also important research centers. Italy's public library system has about 84 branches and holds a total of 41 million volumes. Italy, a world center of culture, history and art, has more than 3, museums.
Naples hosts the Museum of Ethnoprehistory of Castel Dell'ovo and museums of paleontology, mineralogy, anthropology, and astronomy. The National Museum of Science and technology in Milan has an extensive exhibit on Leonardo da Vinci , including models of some of the machines designed by the Renaissance man. A Goethe museum, with manuscripts and illustrations describing Goethe's travels in Italy, opened in in Rome.
Villa Torlonia, Mussolini's home, was renovated in and opened as a museum. Communication systems in Italy, including telephone, telex, and data services, are generally considered to be modern, well developed, and fully automated. In , there were an estimated mainline telephones for every 1, people. The same year, there were approximately 1, mobile phones in use for every 1, people. Radiotelevisione Italiana RAI , a government corporation, broadcasts on three channels. In , there were an additional four national broadcast channels, three of which were operated by Mediaset, a company owned by Prime Minister Berlusconi.
A media law initiated an intent to partially privatize RAI. In , there were an estimated radios for every 1, people. The number of television sets was unavailable in the same survey. Also in , there were There were 1, secure Internet servers in the country in As of , there were about 90 daily newspapers in the country, but not all of them had national circulation. Panorama is the most popular news weekly with a circulation of , in The periodical press is becoming increasingly important. Famiglia Cristiana is a Catholic weekly periodical with a wide readership.
Italy enjoys a free press, with vigorous expression of all shades of opinion. The majority of papers are published in northern and central Italy, and circulation is highest in these areas. Rome and Milan are the most important publication centers. A considerable number of dailies are owned by the political parties, the Roman Catholic Church , and various economic groups. In general, the journalistic level of the Italian papers is high, and two dailies, Milan's Corriere della Sera and Turin's La Stampa , enjoy international respect.
The law provides for freedom of speech and the press, and the government is said to respect these rights in practice. Italian society abounds with organizations of every description. Many of these are associated with or controlled by political parties, which have their ideological counterparts in labor organizations, agricultural associations, cultural groups, sports clubs, and cooperatives.
Among the most important organizations are the National Confederation of Smallholders and the General Confederation of Italian Industry, which strongly influences economic policy. There are chambers of commerce in most major cities. There are labor and trade unions and professional associations representing a wide variety of occupations.
A large number of professional organizations are dedicated to research and education in specialized fields of medicine or for particular diseases and conditions. Catholic Action and the Catholic Association of Italian Workers are the most prominent of the religious organizations. The international religious Order of St.
Augustine and the Society of Jesus Jesuits are based in Rome. A number of political and religious organizations sponsor youth chapters. Sports associations are plentiful and include such a variety of pastimes as tennis, badminton, tae kwon do, cricket, and football soccer. International organizations within the country include Amnesty International , Caritas, and the Red Cross. Among Italy's tourist attractions are the artistic and architectural treasures of Rome and Florence; the thousands of historic churches and galleries in smaller cities; the canals and palaces of Venice; the ruins of ancient Pompeii; the Shroud of Turin , reputed to be the burial cloth of Jesus; and the delicacies of northern Italian cooking, as well as the heartier fare of the south.
Tourists are also lured by Italy's many beaches and by excellent Alpine skiing. Italians enjoy a wide variety of sports, including football soccer , bowling, tennis, track and field, and swimming. Italy won the World Cup in soccer three times, in as host , , and Cortina d'Ampezzo, in the Dolomites, was the site of the Winter Olympics.
Rome hosted the Summer Olympics in Turin was the host the Winter Olympics. A valid passport is necessary to travel to Italy. For stays of up to 90 days a visa is not required. Within eight days all travelers must register with local police and obtain a visitor's permit. Proof of sufficient funds for the visit may also be required. Tourism, a major industry in Italy, brought in 39,, visitors in The Italian peninsula has been at the heart of Western cultural development at least since Roman times.
Also prominent in Latin literature were the orator-rhetorician Marcus Tullius Cicero — 43 bc ; the satirists Gaius Petronius Arbiter d. Gaius Julius Caesar ? The first of the Roman emperors was Octavian Gaius Octavianus, 63 bc — ad 14 , better known by the honorific Augustus. Moesia, ? No history of the Christian Church during the medieval period would be complete without mention of such men of Italian birth as St.
Benedict of Nursia ? Gregory the Great, ? Francis of Assisi ? Anselm ?
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Thomas Aquinas — No land has made a greater contribution to the visual arts. During the 16th century, the High Renaissance, Rome shared with Florence the leading position in the world of the arts. Major masters included the architects Bramante Donato d'Agnolo, ? Giorgio Vasari — 74 was a painter, architect, art historian, and critic. Among the leading artists of the Baroque period were the sculptor and architect Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini — and the painters Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio ?
Leading figures in modern painting were Umberto Boccioni — , Amedeo Modigliani — , Giorgio di Chirico b. Greece, — , and Giorgio Morandi — A noted contemporary architect was Pier Luigi Nervi — Music, an integral part of Italian life, owes many of its forms as well as its language to Italy. The musical staff was either invented or established by Guido d'Arezzo ?
A leading 14th-century composer was the blind Florentine organist Francesco Landini — Leading composers of the High Renaissance and early Baroque periods were Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina — 94 ; the madrigalists Luca Marenzio — 99 and Carlo Gesualdo , prince of Venosa ? Important figures of the later Baroque era were Arcangelo Corelli — , Antonio Vivaldi — , Alessandro Scarlatti — , and his son Domenico Scarlatti — Italian-born Luigi Cherubini — was the central figure of French music in the Napoleonic era, while Antonio Salieri — and Gasparo Spontini — played important roles in the musical life of Vienna and Berlin , respectively.
Composers of the 19th century who made their period the great age of Italian opera were Gioacchino Antonio Rossini — , Gaetano Donizetti — , Vincenzo Bellini — 35 , and, above all, Giuseppe Verdi — More recent operatic composers include Ruggiero Leoncavallo — , Giacomo Puccini — , and Pietro Mascagni — Ferruccio Busoni — , Ottorino Respighi — , Luigi Dallapiccola — 75 , Luigi Nono , and Luciano Berio — are major 20th-century composers.
Arturo Toscanini — is generally regarded as one of the greatest operatic and orchestral conductors of his time; two noted contemporary conductors are Claudio Abbado b. Bartolommeo Cristofori — invented the pianoforte. Italian literature and literary language began with Dante Alighieri — , author of The Divine Comedy , and subsequently included Petrarch Francesco Petrarca, — 74 , Giovanni Boccaccio — 75 , Lodovico Ariosto — , Pietro Aretino — , and Torquato Tasso — An outstanding writer of the Baroque period was Metastasio Pietro Trapassi, — , and Carlo Goldoni — 93 was the most prominent playwright of the 18th century.
The time of Italy's rebirth was heralded by the poets Vittorio Alfieri — , Ugo Foscolo — , and Giacomo Leopardi — Alessandro Manzoni — was the principal Italian novelist of the 19th century, and Francesco de Sanctis — 83 the greatest literary critic. In philosophy, exploration, and statesmanship, Italy has produced many world-renowned figures: the traveler Marco Polo ?
Spain, ? Notable intellectual and political leaders of more recent times include the Nobel Peace Prize winner in , Ernesto Teodoro Moneta — ; the sociologist and economist Vilfredo Pareto — ; the political theorist Gaetano Mosca — ; the philosopher, critic, and historian Benedetto Croce — ; the educator Maria Montessori — ; Benito Mussolini — , the founder of Fascism and dictator of Italy from to ; Carlo Sforza — and Alcide De Gasperi — , famous latter-day statesmen; and the Communist leaders Antonio Gramsci — , Palmiro Togliatti — , and Enrico Berlinguer — Italian scientists and mathematicians of note include Leonardo Fibonacci ?
Andrews, Geoff. Not a Normal Country: Italy after Berlusconi. Ann Arbor , Mich. Baranski, Zygmunt G. West eds. New York : Cambridge University Press, Ben-Ghiat, Ruth. Fascist Modernities: Italy, — Berkeley: University of California Press, Duggan, Christopher. A Concise History of Italy. Findlen, Paula ed. Malden, Mass. Gardner, Richard N. Lanham, Md. Ginsborg, Paul. London: Penguin, New York: Oxford University Press, Moliterno, Gino ed. Encyclopedia of Contemporary Italian Culture.
New York: Routledge, Torriglia, Anna Maria. Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, Fifteen into One? New York: Palgrave, Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. September 21, Retrieved September 21, from Encyclopedia. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.
Supplemental material has been added to increase coverage of minor cities, facts have been updated, and some material has been condensed. Like the Roman god Janus, Italy wears two faces. One, soft with the patina of age, looks back on a glorious history — the awesome monuments of Imperial Rome, the ruins of Pompeii, the magnificence of canal-fretted Venice or colorful Florence, cradle of the Renaissance.
The other face, shiny new, reflects the modernity of a nation surging with superhighways, busy factories, and skyscrapers. Northern Italy, center of the nation's economic life, sprawls busily across the Po River plain. Industries sprout alongside time-worn medieval towns, and the alluvial soils make the area one of the richest agriculturally in southern Europe. Terraces on mountain slopes along the northern border grow grapes for wines and mulberry trees for leaves to feed silk-worms.
Central Italy is dominated by Apen-nine ridges. Once they helped bar unity; even now a village dialect may not be well understood only a few miles away. This is the nation's heartland; the region of Dante, Saint Francis , and Leonardo. Southern Italy, once poverty ridden and ravaged by malaria and erosion, rebounds under reclamation projects and expanding industry. Pacing its life is sunny Naples, the city of Vesuvius, of Capri , and Amalfi, of effervescent people who sing when they are happy, sad, or in love.
Italy is one of the most attractive assignments in the Foreign Service. The country boasts not only a rich cultural and historical tradition, but also enjoys a varied, pleasant climate.
Italians are favorably disposed toward Americans, partly for historical reasons, but mainly because of their general appreciation of things American. Americans generally enjoy Italy, though some find it more difficult than they expect. There is a chaotic element to life here that becomes immediately visible in street traffic, in bank lines, and in getting repairs done on an emergency basis. Urban air pollution has become a serious problem, particularly in Milan, Rome, and Naples. Italy, as other Western democracies, currently faces striking economic and political challenges.
It must reduce the economic differences between the wealthy north and the poorer south and control organized crime. In recent years, significant steps have been taken to deal with these problems, but they stubbornly persist. Approached with a spirit of adventure, humor, and patience, a tour in Italy is sure to be rewarding, both personally and professionally.
Rome, one of the world's most famous cities, has been the capital of Italy since the nation's unification in Rome is located about halfway down the Italian Peninsula, 15 miles inland from the Tyrrhenian Sea, astride the Tiber River. Although the seven original hills of the city are small roughly feet above sea level , some of the hills on the west bank of the Tiber, such as Monte Mario elevation feet , are considerably higher.
A city of about 2. It remains a city deeply imbued with a sense of history.
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Nevertheless, it is also a modern city with all the modern amenities, and difficulties. Rome is an international capital. A sizable foreign community is in Rome. Approximately 17, Americans permanently live in the consular district, which includes the regions of Lazio Latium , Abruzzo, Marche, and Umbria. A large variety of fresh produce is available locally. Prices and availability of particular items vary greatly with the season. Good beef can be hard to find, but veal is plentiful. Meats and poultry are much more expensive than in the U.
Groceries are available in great variety, including typically American cereals, crackers, and cheeses. Local bread keeps only a short time because it lacks preservatives. Men: American clothing is practical and satisfactory. Summer suits of synthetic materials can be worn here 6 months a year.
Winter suits, a medium-weight overcoat, and a raincoat are also needed. Sports jackets are very useful. Tuxedos are worn for formal nights at the opera. Formal wear can be rented in Rome. Good ready-made suits are available, as are excellent tailors and a good selection of materials. Although prices vary greatly, the best tailoring is cheaper and the best material more expensive than in the U. Custom-made shirts of cotton and silk, worn by well-dressed Italians, are expensive.
Underclothing, socks, and ready-made shirts are expensive. Fine silk ties and scarves, leather gloves, coats, and bags are a good buy. Although Americans generally prefer American styling for their shoes, Italian shoes are considered attractive and are available in a wide range of styles and sizes.
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Women: Wool or knit dresses and suits are popular and practical in Italy most of the year. American cottons are ideal for the summer. Cocktail tail and short dinner dresses are worn frequently to the opera, concerts and parties. Sportswear of all kinds is useful. Dress shops are abundant in Italy, but the selection found in any one shop is limited. Clothing is in high fashion and made mostly of natural fibers all wool, cotton, or silk.
Casual wash-and-wear summer fashions are hard to find i. Winter skirts and sweaters are abundant, of good quality, and are reasonably priced. Remember that sizes and cuts are different and are not always to American taste. Good-quality undergarments are usually more expensive than similar items in the U. Some American brands are found locally. Italian women occasionally have clothes made. This is expensive, but it assures quality. Quality materials are expensive, and simple cotton dresses may often cost as much as silk dresses. Silks and woolens, or blends, are beautiful and of good quality.
Italian shoes are stylish and attractive, but sizes generally vary by length only and do not always fit American feet. A few stores carry American-last shoes. Good comfortable walking shoes are hard to find, but all-leather boots are abundant. Hats are seldom worn. Several hat shops in Italy sell ready made or made to order hats at prices comparable to those in the U.
Ladies gloves and other leather goods are an Italian specialty and are generally cheaper than those in the U. Designer items from houses such as Gucci, Fendi and Valentino are expensive but cheaper than in the U. Children: Beautiful handmade baby clothing and children's party dresses are abundant but expensive. Play clothes for children under 10 are available, but also expensive. Adequate laundry and dry cleaning services are available, although not as numerous as in the U. Dry cleaning is expensive. Rome has both laundromats and coin-operated dry cleaning machines; however, paid attendants operate the machines with varying reliability.
Shoe repair prices are comparable to those in the U. Excellent hairdressers and barbers are available, but they are expensive by American standards. Several have English-speaking hairstylists. One should inquire about expertise with different hair-styles and types. It is possible to have an American manicure and pedicure. Repairs to American radios, sound systems and electrical appliances are not always dependable because most local repairmen are not familiar with equipment made for the American market. It helps to have circuit diagrams or maintenance instructions for each item.
Other repair services are generally good, but substantial effort may be required to locate the particular service needed. Domestic help is expensive, particularly if you are seeking experienced personnel. Italian workers are rare and the majority does not speak English. There are many third-country nationals available. The mandatory requirement for locally hired non-EU household workers is that they possess a valid sojourn permit for work in Italy.
Household worker employment is governed by specific Italian laws and by a National Contract for Household Workers, which is reviewed and renewed every four years. The cost of these benefits may equal the worker's basic salary. Workers' rights are based on Italian standards that are legally enforceable and failure to observe these basic standards can lead to unpleasant situations for the employer. The following schools should be contacted as far in advance as possible for registration. Most schools provide student lunch facilities, athletic and recreational programs and bus service.
The school year begins in September and ends in June. Good American, British, French and German schools are available. Private schools, including English and French, enroll an increasing number of Italian students because of disciplinary and curriculum reform problems in Italian public schools. Nondenominational, coeducational day school offering instruction in the American educational system kindergarten through grade Instruction is by a multinational but predominantly American faculty.
The school program is primarily designed to prepare students for American universities. Credits are transferable to U. The school has boarding facilities available for high school students at the Villa St. Middle school students can board with local families. Preschool is available for 3-and 4-year-olds. An independent private day school is operated by the Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Mary.
It follows the same course system and offers the same credits as their school in Tarrytown, N. Y, which is guided by the N. Y State Board of Regents program. It also offers the International Baccalaureate program. The faculty is primarily non-clerical and international, drawing many teachers from Ireland and Great Britain. Instruction is offered in English to girls and boys from kindergarten through grade Early childhood classes are available for 3-and 4-year-olds.
Stephen's Schoo l, Via Aven-tina 3, Rome. Tel: 06 , Fax: 06 A private international high school accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges, it offers a program in English designed to meet the entrance requirements of U. Faculty is primarily American.
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Boarding facilities are available for both boys and girls. The school does not provide bus service for day students. Faculty is British and the curriculum is the standard general college preparatory program designed to prepare students for British schools and universities. For students in the International Baccalaureate program, it is adaptable for transfer to American schools and universities.
This school was established in by a group of British-trained teachers and was formed as a cooperative. It is open to children of all nationalities from ages 3 to All lessons are in English, although an optional Italian program provides for those who wish to enter the Italian state system at a later date. The curriculum emphasizes the basic skills, with each CORE teacher specializing in a subject that they teach throughout the school. Music, art, physical education and drama are part of their program. Providing an international education based on American and British approaches and techniques, the school's programs of study and activities foster the development of the whole child with opportunities for growth in all areas.
Awareness and understanding of different cultures is encouraged, especially an appreciation of Italy, its language and its culture. Foreign language instruction is introduced at any early age. Instruction is in English. AUR offers bachelor-degree programs in business administration, international relations, interdisciplinary studies, and Italian studies and an associate degree in liberal arts. It is the Rome study-abroad center for several American colleges and universities.
John Cabot University offers bachelor degree programs in business administration, international affairs art history and English language literature. Some associate degree programs are also available. All courses at John Cabot are transferable to Hiram College, which issues official transcripts for John Cabot students. The center offers an interdisciplinary program of graduate studies in international relations. Courses are given in international economics, European studies history, politics and culture , international law , U.
Degrees earned at the Center are granted by the Johns Hopkins University. Degrees offered: diploma in international relations one year , M.
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Tel: , Fax: The Graduate Center of St. John's University, located at the Oratorio San Pietro in Rome, offers programs of study in business administration, church administration, and international relations. The M. The church administration program began in ; the M. This is a program of St.
John's University in New York. Almost any form of sports activity can be enjoyed in the vicinity of Rome, including golf, tennis, skiing, swimming, riding, boating, bicycling, hunting, and fishing. Spectator sports include soccer, boxing, horse racing , and auto and motorcycle racing. Much of Rome's sports activity is organized around private clubs. Most memberships in private clubs are expensive and are not refundable. The Acqua Santa Golf Club , 5 miles from the city, has an hole course. The Olgiata Country Club, about 10 miles north of the city, has a hole golf course, swimming pool, tennis courts, riding horses, and a fine clubhouse.
The membership fee is very high and you need a club member sponsor. Several other tennis and swimming clubs are open to Americans. An incredible number and variety of places of historical and artistic interest are found in and around Rome. Commercial and cultural organizations arrange tours and visits daily.
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Tours are conducted in a variety of languages, including English. Naples is less than 3 hours by car and Florence is almost as close. Rome itself has major monuments and archeological and historical sites. These exist in greater richness and variety in Italy than in any other country. The many good guidebooks to Italy available locally or in the U. Many recreation areas and campgrounds are found in the countryside. Master and Man and Other Stories. Works of Leo Tolstoy.
Sevastopol Sketches Sebastopol Sketches. War and Peace Volume 1 of 2. Leo Tolstoy - War and Peace. The Brothers Karamazov Fyodor Dostoyevsky. Don Quixote Miguel de Cervantes. The Idiot Fyodor Dostoyevsky. The Philosophy of History G. The Three Musketeers Alexandre Dumas. Analects of Confucius Arthur Waley. Teachings of the Compassionate Buddha E. Eugene Onegin Alexander Pushkin. Democracy In America de Tocqueville Alexis.
The Descent of Man Adrian J. Goethes Faust Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. The Handmaid's Tale Margaret Atwood. Nineteen Eighty-four George Orwell. A Month in the Country J. Animal Farm George Orwell. Heart of Darkness Joseph Conrad. Brave New World Aldous Huxley. The Catcher in the Rye J. The Collector John Fowles. At that time, Italy wanted European powers to recognize Rome as an emerging Mediterranean colonial player, particularly in Libya. To achieve this aim, Italy sought diplomatic agreements with all the major players in Europe at that period, and its foreign policy was evolving.
In , it struck a deal with Germany, in with Austria. However, these two actors had been formal allies of Italy since , when Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy established the Triple Alliance after growing anti-French sentiments in Italy pushed Rome toward Berlin. These dynamics pushed Italy closer to Central European powers. However, several structural concerns prevented Rome from sticking more consistently to this alliance, particularly concerning Austria.
On the other, the need to solidify national unity put Italy on a collision course with Austria, since Vienna still controlled Trieste and Trento. This structural contradiction slowly but steadily weakened the Triple Alliance. The colonial issue was nevertheless essential in pushing Italy closer to France. After 15 years of growing tension with France, Italy started a process of rapprochement with Paris.
Italy wanted to accommodate some of the requests of France and Great Britain to nurture its imperial ambitions. As such, particularly following an agreement with France, relations with Paris began to improve. The Franco-Italian agreement recognized the populous Italian community in Tunisia — around 55, people at that time — granting it greater autonomy and preserving most of the privileges accorded in the Italo-Tunisian treaty.
In return Italy reassured France about its hands-off policy in Tunisia and recognized the protectorate. In , a new agreement put an end to the economic war between the two countries, and in the Foreign Affairs Minister of the Zanardelli government, Giulio Prinetti, exchanged notes with Paris negotiating a counter-insurance treaty.
Italy also reached out to Great Britain to revive the Mediterranean Agreements of , accords that were mediated by Germany. The German chancellor was particularly familiar with Italian politics and culture, since he had been ambassador to Rome from to , and he was also married to the daughter of two-time Italian Prime Minister Marco Minghetti.
Since then, the reference to the waltz has been a constant element of the Italian international stance. Rome always tries to retain greater diplomatic freedom of action, and Italians constantly interpret alliances in a much looser way than many allies expect and desire. For historical , cultural , and geopolitical reasons, Italian foreign policy has long been particularly fluid. Consistent with this fluidity, Rome has often retained some freedom of action in dealing with strategic competitors or enemies of the European Union and NATO as well.
For instance, during the Cold War, Italy was not particularly critical of the Soviet Union, despite being an open supporter of the European communitarian project and transatlantic cooperation. Being home to one of the most prominent communist parties of Western Europe, Italy always tried to keep good relations with Moscow. The Soviets named the town, known as Togliattigrad in Italian , after the historical leader of the Italian communist party, Palmiro Togliatti. Indeed, it seems likely it was somehow suggested — if not imposed — by the Italian government.
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